Rural History 2015

Panel 8

Organizers: Martiin, Carin (1); Herment, Laurent (2)

Affiliation: 1: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; 2: CNRS-CRH. EHESS, Paris. UMR 8558. ERHIMOR, GDRI-CRICEC, France

Technical change in agriculture, XIX-XX centuries

This session highlights technical change in European farming, with point of departure in altered use of resources, from obtained chiefly from the biosphere, for example horses, to increased use of resources from the lithosphere, such as tractors (Moser 2013). This transition was related to diverging interests, such as farmers and the elites, which make Lourenzo Fernández Prieto and Daniel Lanero ask: Who chose the new technology and who benefitted from it? This Galician study focuses on objectives, subjects of innovation and beneficiaries with reference to machinery and cattle breeds, but also compares institutional tools for innovation and the way from agrarian engineering to social engineering. From Swiss perspectives Peter Moser and Juri Auderset highlight different patterns in mechanization and motorization, and the time gap between break-through in industrial sectors and farming. Parallel use of draft animals and combustion machines in Switzerland 1945-1960 is also discussed, and so is the increased replacing of draft animals by engines by the end of this period, due to the access to the mineral resources, new knowledge, new demands and changing political frameworks. Lauren Herment compares the implementation of the threshing machine and the tractor in rural France, and finds huge differences due to geography, farm size and time. Whereas the threshing machine was implemented in a relatively steady agrarian framework that it did not disrupt, tractors are supposed to have modified deeply the global framework of agriculture. From Sweden Carin Martiin studies the concrete adaptation of the tractor at farm level; of other equipment, routines and farm economy. It is also shown that the large-scale spread of tractors in the 1950s did not mean rapid exit of horses, which often resulted in combinations of underemployed horses and underutilized tractors.

 

Papers (part I)

Chair: Juan Pan-Montojo, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain

Discussants: Pieter De Graef, Department of History, University of Antwerp, the Netherlands; Karl Bruno, Agrarian and Rural History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

Paper 1: Mechanisation and Motorisation: Natural resources, knowledge and technology in 19th and 20th-century agriculture

Peter Moser and Juri Auderset, Archives of Rural History, Bern, Switzerland

Paper 2: Patterns of technological change in agriculture in the 20th century: from agrarian engineering to social engineering

Lourenzo Fernández Prieto and Daniel Lanero, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Paper 3: The agrarian crisis at the end of the 19th century: a watershed in the socio-ecological transition from traditional organic to industrial farm systems? Some Spanish examples (1860-1900)

Ramon Garrabou, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain; Manuel González de Molina, Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain; Enric Tello: University of Barcelona, Spain

Paper 4: Horses and tractors: the process of transition in Swedish farming [+]

Carin Martiin, Agrarian and Rural History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden

 

Papers (part II)

Chairs: Gérard Béaur, CNRS-CRH. EHESS, Paris. UMR 8558. GDRI-CRICEC.

Discussants: Pieter De Graef, Department of History, University of Antwerp, the Netherlands; Karl Bruno, Agrarian and Rural History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

Paper 5: Technical change or market integration? Explaining the growth of the European agriculture from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries [+]

Vicente Pinilla, University of Zaragoza, Spain; Miguel Martin-Retortillo, University of Zaragoza, Spain.

Paper 6: Threshing machines and tractors: two implementation processes

Laurent Herment: CNRS-CRH. EHESS, Paris. UMR 8558. GDRI-CRICEC.

Paper 7: Agronomic science and technological development in Greek agriculture through the scientific instrument collection at the Agricultural University of Athens (1920-1960)

Dimitris Panagiotopoulos, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece; Maria Mavroidi, Historical Archives of the Public Power Company (PPC), Athens, Greece.

Paper 8: Modernization of the coffee plantations: the green revolution in the Costa Rican coffee industry, 1950-1970 [+]

Andrea Mora Montero,Universidad de Barcelona, Spain.

 

Suggested deadline for sending completed papers 31 july 2015

© 2014 Rural History 2015